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Perfectionism and athlete engagement: A multi-sample test of the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism

Hill, Andrew P. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6370-8901, Madigan, Daniel J. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9937-1818 and Jowett, Gareth E. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4004-2857 (2020) Perfectionism and athlete engagement: A multi-sample test of the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism. Psychology of Sport and Exercise.

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Abstract

Few studies have examined how perfectionism relates to athlete engagement. In addition, the studies that do exist have focused on the main effects of dimensions of perfectionism as opposed to their interactive effects. The first purpose of the study was therefore to examine the interactive effects of dimensions of perfectionism in predicting athlete engagement and, in doing so, test the hypotheses of the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism. The second purpose of the study was to examine whether support for the 2 × 2 model depended on the instrument used to measure perfectionism. Three samples of junior and adult athletes from various sports (total N = 730) completed a measures of perfectionism indicative of personal standards perfectionism (PSP) and evaluative concerns perfectionism (ECP) (HF-Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Cox, Enns, & Clara, 2002; Sport-Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2, Gotwals, Dunn, Causgrove Dunn, & Gamache, 2011; Multidimensional Inventory of Perfectionism for Sport, Stoeber et al. 2007), as well as a measure of athlete engagement (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire, Lonsdale, Hodge & Jackson, 2007). Moderated regression analyses provided support for the hypotheses of the 2 × 2 model for some facets of engagement but not others. Generally, pure PSP (high PSP/low ECP) was associated with the highest levels of athlete engagement and pure ECP (low PSP/high ECP) was associated with the lowest levels of athlete engagement. Support for the 2 × 2 model also differed depending on the instrument used to measure perfectionism. Overall, the findings suggest that the 2 × 2 model may explain differences between athletes in levels of engagement. However, these differences will depend on which indicators of PSP and ECP are examined.

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2020.101664
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
School/Department: School of Science, Technology and Health
URI: http://ray.yorksj.ac.uk/id/eprint/4425

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