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The uncertainty of community financial incentives for ‘fracking’

Lampkin, Jack ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5104-8758 (2020) The uncertainty of community financial incentives for ‘fracking’. In: South, Nigel and Brisman, Avi, (eds.) The Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology. 2 ed. Oxon, Routledge, pp. 481-494

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Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, while green criminology has gained recognition over the last 30 years, there has been insufficient research focussing specifically on energy crime (and energy harm), despite the fact that many energy extraction processes create environmental
harm and ecological destruction. In order to contribute to green criminological literature on energy crime, this chapter explores the emergence of unconventional hydraulic fracturing (UHF) in the United Kingdom (U.K.) with a concurrent discussion of the global academic literature that
has identified both social and environmental harm as a result of such technology overseas. Second, this chapter offers an analysis of the community financial incentives (CFIs) that are provided to ‘communities’ in respect of the right to use underlying geology for the purposes
of UHF and the subsequent ramifications that such payments may have for environmental justice in the communities that permit fracking to occur.

The chapter draws on empirical research (specifically, interviews) conducted with 20 key-informants. Key-informants are simply defined as expert sources of information—people who ‘as a result of their personal skills, or position within a society, are able to provide more information
and a deeper insight into what is going on around them’ (Marshall 1996: 92). Participants consisted of: three academics; four consultants to the onshore oil and gas industry (geology and water); three regulators; two parish councillors; one journalist; five anti-fracking campaigners;
one oil and gas professional; and one gas company director. I utilised three techniques to approach and arrange interviews with key-informants, all of which can be seen as forms of purposive sampling. These included utilising the social media professional networking site LinkedIn (30 per cent), non-LinkedIn public domain information (35 per cent) and face-to-face networking at conferences, debates and public meetings (35 per cent). This purposive sampling technique enabled me to approach prospective interviewees using the knowledge that I had gained through a comprehensive literature review undertaken prior to data collection.

Item Type: Book Section
Additional Information: This is an Accepted Manuscript of a book chapter published by Routledge in The Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology on 27/04/2020 available online: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781315207094-27/uncertainty-community-financial-incentives-fracking-jack-adam-lampkin
Status: Published
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315207094-27
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
K Law > KD England and Wales
School/Department: York Business School
URI: http://ray.yorksj.ac.uk/id/eprint/5867

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